Open Questions in Physics.
In the universe matter is in incessant motion, but there are clusters of matter at relative rest. For the ordinary observer on the earth many things seem to be at relative rest while other things are in motion. Cars travel on roads, airplanes and bullets fly, scientists can detect speeding electrons and subatomic particles. The earth seems to be at rest, but we know that it whirls around the sun and spins about its own axis. Beyond what seems to be solid matter is incessant motion right down to the subatomic realm of matter as well as the vast expanse of the cosmos. In the universe everything is in ceaseless motion. The inquiring mind is forced to ponder about the processes that do create relatively solid states of matter from its perpetually moving components. One great puzzle is: What is the fundamental cause of this dynamic universe?
Many other things yet are unknown about the material world. Physicists are still searching for the final indivisible end-constituent of matter. Ancient Greek philosophers called it the atom. In the early days of science chemists thought they have found the atom. But shortly after, the spectrums of hydrogen, sodium, and other elements revealed that the atoms have components. Electrons, protons, and neutrons, have been the first components to be discovered, followed by what Steven Weinberg the Nobel Laureate physicist called, a “zoo of subatomic particles”. Is it plausible to hypothesize that the ultimate end-constituent of matter is in incessant motion? Could relatively static mass be a composite of massless but energetic end-constituents of matter?
There are several other unanswered questions in physics related to the fundamental puzzle. Newton, for instance, openly acknowledged that he does not know the physical cause of the gravitational force. His laws and the equations of motion have been tremendous scientific achievements, accurately accounting for the gravitational force. He however could not explain why ponderable bodies gravitate toward one another. In space science Newton’s equations are used in calculating the trajectories of satellites, missions to the Moon, and to the planets of the Sun, yet we still don’t know the physical essence of gravitational force. In fact, theories of physical processes have not explained the physical nature of the four invisible forces of nature that act through a distance, namely the gravitational, electromagnetic, the strong and weak nuclear forces.
Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity has revealed yet hidden laws of motion. It took about two-hundred-years to more accurately describe the laws of motion and gravity than Newton’s laws. Using Einstein’s equations scientists can now calculate the apparent increase of a moving mass as its speed is increases. The increase of mass is a matter of interpretation. Actual observations have revealed that increased energy is required to accelerate a moving particle to higher speeds. This is also an interpretation of Einstein’s equation which accurately accounts for the variables. Also know that light is not propagated along a straight line when passes by a large mass. The curvature of light coming from a star as it passed by sun has been observed and confirmed Einstein’s prediction with great accuracy. But it is also a matter of interpretation that time-space has a curvature. We cannot factually describe the physical nature of space and time--or space-time as indivisible entities—and the process of the propagation of light and why it is affected by gravity. If space is empty, void of matter, than space is a conceptual entity. Thus, it is illogical to believe that space, in spite of being a non-entity, it can have any property such as curvature. More logical is to infer from observations that the notion of space is invoked by three-dimensional matter, and the concept of time is invoked by events. Events are inherently tied to motion of matter. Thus events can only be described mathematically as four dimensional time-space continuum.
Another unanswered question relates to radioactivity. More than one-hundred years ago, Professor Becquerel’s pondered, what causes the emission of energetic particles from a piece of motionless Uranium rock? By now, we have acquired an enormous amount of knowledge about this process and call it radioactive decay. Dozens of isotopes of the natural and man-made elements have radioactivity. The laws of subatomic reactions are known and we can even create new elements. This knowledge led to the development of nuclear reactors, generating electric power, and the enormous destructive power of atomic bombs. However, the physical trigger of spontaneous emanation of energetic beams of energy and particles from isotopes has remained a mystery.
OPEN CHAPTERS OF PHYSICS AND SOME CONJECTURES.
Since the beginning of the 20th Century, the theories of ‘Ether’ were discarded. Eventually Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics replaced the ether. Ever since that time, the most famous scientists of the world failed to unite two distinct branches of physics into a so called Grand Unification Theory (GUT). The present conjecture investigates the failure of unification from the point of view of philosophical logic. The four basic forces of nature, gravitational, electromagnetic, the strong and the weak nuclear forces, maybe explained by the presumed existence of ‘primordial (P) particles’.
The existence of p particles is conjectured to be innumerable by numbers, infinitesimally small, and undetectable massless material particles. It is further presumed that P particles are incessantly and randomly moving in space with extremely high speed above the speed of light. These primordial particles are seen as being massless, spherical, absolute solid, the smallest indivisible and indestructible components of the universe. Due to their random motions, P particles are continuously interacting with one another thus create a large number of observable events.
The consequences of P collisions are different from the known laws of interactions between mass-bearing particles. The energy represented by their motion and their spontaneous collisions presumed to invoke a large number of different mass-bearing configurations that may be calculated by statistical probabilities. Mass as known today, can be imagined to be the combined units of P particles with different life spans.
The failure to unify the two branches of physics may partly be due to lack of imagination. For most people it is hard to presume that mass-bearing matter maybe composed of massless particles. Another reason for failing to create a GUT maybe the reliance upon the notion of continuum and almost exclusive reliance upon differential and integral equations in describing physics. It is probable that the infinitesimally small world of P particles beyond the subatomic domain could only be described and theoretically formulated by a new notion of ‘Quantum Geometry’. The following thesis is based upon these conjectures.